Heat treatment of steels is the heating and cooling of metals without changing their shape in order to change their physical and mechanical properties. It can be said that heat treatment is a method for strengthening materials but also for formability, machining, etc. It can also be used to change some mechanical properties, such as. The most common application is metallurgical, but heat treatment of metals can also be used in its manufacture.
Unlike chemical treatments, heat treatment procedures do not change the chemical composition of the surface, only the metallurgical structure of the base material. Although the basic heat treatment procedures that induce suitable residual stress layers are induction hardening and flame hardening, many processes such as flame cutting, welding, quenching, and even hot rolling or forging can also be considered in this category. However, in the last two cases, chemical composition effects are involved as carbon is removed from the surface by oxidation. This `` decarbonization '' process produces surface layers whose physical properties are generally lower than that of the core and is therefore considered the attenuation process.
Heat treatment is a controlled process used to modify the microstructure of metals and alloys such as steel and aluminum to impart properties that benefit a component's working life, such as increased surface hardness, temperature resistance, and strength. Heat treatment processes include hardening, annealing, solution treatments, Special Stainless Steel Treatments (S3P), annealing and normalizing.
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Heat treatment processes require three basic steps:
• Heating to a certain temperature
• Keeping this temperature at the appropriate temperature
Cooling according to the prescribed methods
Heat treatment is defined as a combination of heating and cooling processes, applied to a metal or alloy in solid state to produce the desired properties. The heat treatment process usually involves the use of heating or cooling at extreme temperatures to achieve the desired result. It is a very important production process that not only helps the production process, but can also improve the product, its performance and features in many ways.
HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES
Hardening involves heating the steel, keeping all the perlite at a suitable temperature until it turns into austenite and then quenching it rapidly in water or oil. The temperature at which austenation occurs rapidly depends on the carbon content of the steel used. The heating time should be increased so that the core is also completely converted to austenite. The microstructure of a hardened steel part is ferrite, martensite or cementite.
Tempering involves heating the quenched and hardened steel for a sufficient amount of time for the metal to stabilize. The hardness and strength obtained depends on the temperature at which the annealing is carried out. Higher temperatures result in high ductility but low strength and hardness. Low annealing temperatures provide low ductility but high strength and hardness. In practice, suitable annealing temperatures are selected to provide the desired hardness and strength level. This process is hardened to reduce their brittleness.
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